Iron ore mining equipment Nigeria
After the mining of ore, except for a few rich in valuable minerals bonanza, the vast majority of lean ore contains large amounts of gangue. In the metallurgical industry, these lean ore content of low useful components of mineral and the composition is complex, if directly use smelting to extract metals, energy consumption is very large,and will resulting in high production costs. For more economic development and use of low-grade ore, expand the sources of mineral raw materials, ore smelting must go through before sorting and enrichment to abandon most of the gangue, processing the useful minerals in order to reached the smelting requirements.
In the beneficiation process, there are two basic steps: First, dissociation, That is crushing and grinding the large pieces of ore, and dissociating a variety of useful minerals from the ore particles; Second, sorting, is to after the material particles have been dissociated,selct the different products according to their physical and chemical differences in the nature preferably. Due to the nature of the vast majority of useful minerals are closely associated with gangue together and often has embedded micro-fine in the ore, if not use the first step to make a variety of minerals or ingredients separated from each other, even if their properties have very big difference, still can not be sorted. So let's useful minerals and gangue full dissociation is a prerequisite for the use of any sorting method, and the purpose of crushing and grinding the ore is to make the closely linked useful raw minerals and gangue full dissociation of each other. Ore crushing process is to gradually make the process of block decreasing. Various useful dissociation are produced from the process of mineral particles size. If the product is not crushed fine enough granularity, useful minerals and gangue can not fully dissociated ,then the sorting will become ineffective ; while the pulverized product granularity too thin , resulting in too much crushed particles, although a variety of useful minerals is dissociated completely , but the sorting result is also not necessarily good, this is because any material size the sorting method can handle has a certain limit, below the lower limit of the particle ( ie over crushed particles ) would be difficult to effectively sorting . For example , the flotation on less than 5 ~ 10μm mineral particles , gravity separation for mineral particles less than 19μm , the recovery is still not very good. Therefore, the concentrator crushing and grinding basic task is to select the full dissociation and crushed lesser material for the sorting operation , and its particle size can fit the chosen sorting method. If the crushing process and equipment operations improper selection , bad production and operations management, dissociation is not sufficient, over crushing or grinding the material, all of this will be cause the decline in overall beneficiation plant technical and economic indicators.
In the plant, the equipment investment, production costs, energy consumption and consumption of steel in crushing and grinding operations are often the largest proportion, better or worse calculation of crushing and grinding equipment selection and operation management, to a large extent determine the economic benefits of concentrator. To sum up, high and low concentrator technology indicators, and economic indicators, for better or worse, its root causes are often lies in mineral ore crushing and grinding, so each mineral processing workers must be seriously used in the crushing and grinding equipments, minimizing the cost of the hole plant.
Dressing plant ordinarily adopt three-stage ore crushing process (rough crushing-secondary crushing-fine crushing process). In rough crushing process 1.2m or 1.5m rotary crusher is mainly adopted; 2.1m or 2.2m standard cone crusher is used in secondary crushing process; 2.1m or 2.2m short-head cone crusher is used in fine crushing process. After rough crushing, the size of ores is less than 1m; through secondary and fine crushing process, ore particles of size smaller than 12mm is screened out and sent to the grinding groove.
Iron Ore Dressing Technology
1. Magnetite Beneficiation
It is mainly used to dressing Anshan-type magnetite of low grade. Owing to strong magnetism and being easy to grind and select, one-stage grinding and multi-stage ore grinding process are mainly adopted by magnetic separation plant at home. As for the magnetite embedded with course grains, former process (one-stage ore grinding) is adopted; magnetite embedded with fine grains or ultrafine grains, the latter (two ore three stage ore grinding )is adopted. Our country has developed serialization of permanent magnetization, which makes the permanent magnetization of magnetic separator come true. After seventies, the new technology (fine screening and regrinding) are popularized in magnetite beneficiation plants nationwide, which make concentration grade improved from 62% to 66% and achieve the goal that concentration grade top 65% promoted by ministry of metallurgical industry.
2. Weak-magnetite Beneficiation
This method is mainly used to select hematite, limonite, specularite, siderite, martite or mixed ore which is also called as ‘red ore’. Featuring low grade, fine disseminated grain size and complex combined components, it is hard to select this kind of ores. Later 80s, researches on technological process, equipment and new drugs of roasting magnetic separation, wet-type high-intensity magnetic separation, weak-magnetism flotation, and gravity concentration, etc. are endless, which make concentrate grade, metal recovery rate constantly improved. For example, Angang Qidashan concentrator adopts new technological process (weak-intensity magnetic separation----high-intensity magnetic separation---flotation process), which gain inspiring achievements.
3. Polymetallic Associated Ores Beneficiation
This kind of ore has complex components and various types, so the adopted dressing methods, plants and processes are diverse. For example, Baiyunbo iron ore plant adopts different technological processes, like reverse flotation--multi-gradient magnetic separation, flocfloatation, weak-intensity magnetic separation-- reverse flotation-high-intensity magnetic separation, weak-intensity magnetic separation-direct flotation, roasting-magnetic separation, etc., so they can improve iron recovery and comprehensively recover rare earth oxide. Panzhihua iron mine get V-Fe concentrate containing about 53％ TFｅ through magnetic separation; through process of weak-intensity magnetic separation and scavenging—high-intensity magnetic separation— gravity concentration—flotation—dry electric separation, titanium concentrate and polymetallic ores can be separated from tailings, therefore titanium and cobalt can be recovered. Daye Iron Mine adopts weak-intensity magnetic separation—high-intensity magnetic separation and flotation to comprehensively recover iron, copper, cobalt, sulphur, etc.
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